Safe Haven Laws: An Invitation to Life

Hannah Howard  

This paper was originally published on December 1, 2021. This is issue 71 of CLI’s On Point series. To view this report as a PDF, see: Safe Haven Laws: An Invitation to Life

 

Editor’s Note (10/31/2022): As of October 2022, there are now 121 Baby Boxes located in 6 states: Indiana (86), Ohio (6), Florida (1), Arkansas (11), New Mexico (1), and Kentucky (14) (p. 19). Additionally, Arizona has 4 baby drawer locations onsite at hospitals that operate similarly to baby boxes with one that is currently under construction (p. 19). According to the Safe Haven Baby Boxes organization, 21 babies have been surrendered inside Baby Boxes since 2016, 3 babies have been surrendered directly to emergency personnel in locations that have a Safe Haven Baby Box, and 123 babies have been surrendered under the Safe Haven law after contacting the Safe Haven Baby Boxes national hotline (p. 20). Today, over 4,687 babies have been relinquished under Safe Haven laws and are being cared for (p. 20).

 

In 1999 Texas became the first U.S. state to pass an infant Safe Haven law. Today, all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have enacted variations of the law. These laws were passed to aid mothers in crisis and protect their babies from abandonment and infanticide. Instead of abandonment, Safe Haven laws encourage mothers in desperate situations to relinquish their babies to a safe location where they can be cared for and eventually provided with loving families. Unfortunately, cases of babies being abandoned to die still occur. In 2019, for example, 18 babies were relinquished safely under the Safe Haven law in Texas, but 15 babies were illegally abandoned, and of those 15, five perished.[1] These cases have stoked the fervor with which organizations and state offices are working to increase awareness and expand Safe Haven laws.

 

Perhaps the most famous story of infant relinquishment is the biblical story of baby Moses. The account goes that baby Moses was put in a basket and placed on the banks of the Nile River where his sister watched attentively from a distance to see what would happen to him. Baby Moses was found by Pharaoh’s daughter and ultimately raised as her own.[2] In several states Safe Haven laws are called “Baby Moses Laws” after this story. The beauty of this story is that baby Moses’ sister, probably instructed by her mother, waited in the brush to make sure that he was okay. In the same way, many mothers who relinquish infants want to ensure that their babies are safe. This is why the term “relinquish” is used in relation to Safe Haven laws and not the word “abandon.” Relinquishing a baby to a better situation is courageous and not at all an instance of infant abandonment.

 

Safe Haven Law Basics

 

Safe Haven laws have been developing and undergoing revisions for over 20 years in the United States. Each state establishes its own criteria under its Safe Haven law, but every state specifies valid locations and age cutoffs for infant relinquishment. In 16 states individuals must relinquish an infant to a hospital emergency room, an emergency medical services (EMS) provider, or a designated health care facility. Twenty-seven states also designate fire stations as Safe Haven drop-off locations. Twenty-five states allow law enforcement agencies to accept infants relinquished under Safe Haven laws. Five states allow EMS providers responding to emergency calls to accept infants under Safe Haven laws. Additionally, four states allow churches, where a staff member is present, to act as Safe Haven locations.

 

In 11 states infants must be 72 hours old or younger to be relinquished. In 19 states infants must be one month or younger to be relinquished. Various other ages are specified in the remaining states. In almost all states either a mother or father can relinquish a baby to a Safe Haven location, but in four states the relinquishing parent must be the mother. The remaining states require a person designated by the infant’s parents or a legal guardian. Eight states do not define who may relinquish an infant under a Safe Haven law.[3]

 

The purpose of relinquishing an infant under a Safe Haven law is, of course, to ensure that the infant is safe. In order to ensure the safety of the infant, Safe Haven providers must be trained and ready to provide an infant with temporary custody, deliver immediate medical care (or contact emergency services if not at a hospital or with an on-duty EMS provider), and understand the process of contacting their local department of children and family services (DCFS).  The table below lays out these differing criteria by state.

 

Safe Haven Criteria by State and Baby Box and Drawer Information (Table 1)

STATE INFANT AGE WHO CAN RELINQUISH WHERE
Alabama[4] 72 hours or younger A parent A hospital with an ER
Alaska[5] Younger than 21 days A parent 1.) Peace Officers

2.) Firefighters

3.) Emergency Medical Service Providers

4.) Doctors, Nurses, and Health Aides

5.) Any person the parent reasonably believes would keep the infant safe and provide appropriate care.

 

 

 

Arizona[6] 72 hours or younger A parent or an “agent” of the parent 1.) On duty firefighter

2.) On duty EMT

3.) Medical staff member at rural general or general hospital on duty

4.) A staff member or volunteer at an organization including a licensed private child welfare agency, a licensed adoption agency, or a church, that publicly posts notice that it accepts infants under Safe Haven laws

*This state contains six baby drawers.[7]

Arkansas[8] 30 days or younger A parent or a person given permission by a parent 1.) Emergency Room

2.) Sheriff or Police Locations

3.) Manned Fire Stations

*This state contains eight baby boxes.[9]

California[10] 72 hours or younger A parent or person with lawful custody 1.) All Hospitals, public or private

2.) Designated Fire Stations

3.) Organizations and Agencies with approval

4.) Locations by CA zip code here

Colorado[11] 72 hours or younger A parent 1.) A firefighter at a fire station

2.) A hospital staff member who is at a hospital, and works in admission, care, or treatment of patients

Connecticut[12] 30 days or younger A parent or “lawful agent” of the parent Nursing staff at a Hospital Emergency Room
Delaware[13] 14 days or younger A parent Directly to a staff member or volunteer inside a Delaware hospital ER
District of Columbia[14] 14 days or younger A parent who is a resident of D.C. A staff member at any D.C. hospital
Florida[15] 7 days or younger A parent A staffed hospital, EMS station, or fire station

*This state contains one baby box.[16]

Georgia[17] 7 days or younger The mother Physical relinquishment to an on-duty staff member or volunteer of a medical facility (*excludes dentist’s and doctor’s offices)
Hawaii[18] 72 hours or younger Any person Personnel at:

1.) Hospital

2.) Police station

3.) Fire station

4.) Emergency services provider

Idaho[19] 30 days or younger A parent 1.) Licensed hospitals

2.) Licensed physicians and staff working at offices and clinics

3.) Advanced practice professional nurses

4.) Licensed physician’s assistants

5.) First responders, EMTs, and paramedics

Illinois[20] 30 days or younger A parent 1.) Hospital

2.) Police stations (including campus police)

3.) Fire station

4.) Emergency medical facility

Indiana[21] 30 days or younger A parent or person designated by the parent Emergency medical services provider

*“In a newborn safety device” (baby box) that is located at a fire department or volunteer fire department.[22]

*This state contains 71 baby boxes.[23]

Iowa[24] 30 days or younger A parent or person designated by the parent An “institutional health facility” meaning a hospital, ER, or health care facility that is open 24/7, or a first responder responding to a 911 call
Kansas[25] 45 days or younger A parent or person with lawful custody of infant An on-duty employee at:

1.) Police station

2.) Sheriff’s office

3.) Law enforcement center

4.) Fire station

5.) City or county health department

6.) Medical care facility

Kentucky[26] Younger than 30 days A parent or any person who intends to leave the infant and not return 1.) Hospitals

2.) EMS providers

3.) Staffed police stations

4.) Staffed fire stations

5.) Participating places of worship

*This state contains four baby boxes.[27]

Louisiana[28] 60 days or younger A parent 1.) Hospital

2.) Public health unit

3.) EMS provider

4.) Medical clinic

5.) Police station

6.) Fire station

7.) Crisis pregnancy center

8.) Child advocacy center

9.) Call 911 and relinquish to EMS responder at a location of choice

Maine[29] 31 days or younger Any person 1.) A law enforcement officer

2.) Staff at a medical emergency room

3.) A medical services provider, including, but not limited to, a physician, nurse, podiatrist, optometrist, chiropractor, physical therapist, dentist, psychologist, physician’s assistant, emergency medical services person

4.) A hospital staff member

Maryland[30] 10 days or younger The mother or a person designated by the mother 1.) A responsible adult

2.) Hospital

3.) Facility designated by regulation

Massachusetts[31] 7 days or younger A parent 1.) Hospital

2.) Police department

3.) Staffed fire station

Michigan[32] 72 hours or younger A parent A uniformed employee at

1.) Police station

2.) Fire department

3.) Hospital

4.) A paramedic or EMT responding to a 911 call

Minnesota[33] 7 days or younger The mother or person designated by the mother 1.) Licensed hospital

2.) Urgent care

3.) A licensed ambulance service reached at 911 by the mother or a person designated by the mother

Mississippi[34] 72 hours or younger A parent 1.) A licensed hospital with an ER

2.) A licensed adoption agency

Missouri[35] 45 days or younger A parent Any staff member or volunteer:

1.) Any hospital

2.) Maternity home

3.) Pregnancy resource center

4.) Firefighter

5.) EMT

6.) Law enforcement officer

Montana[36] 30 days or younger A parent 1.) Fire station

2.) Hospital

3.) Law enforcement agency

4.) Prison or jail

Nebraska[37] 30 days or younger Any person An on-duty employee at a licensed hospital
Nevada[38] 30 days or younger A parent 1.) A hospital, an obstetric center, or an independent center for emergency medical care

2.) A fire department

3.) A law enforcement agency

New Hampshire[39] 7 days or younger A parent 1.) Hospital

2.) Church with staff present

3.) Police station with staff present

4.) Fire station with staff present

5.) A 911 responder at agreed transfer location

New Jersey[40] 30 days or younger A parent or person designated by the parent 1.) Police station

2.) 24/7 staffed fire station or volunteer fire station

3.) Public or private “ambulance, first aid, or rescue squad” that is staffed 24/7

4.) ER at licensed hospital

New Mexico[41] 90 days or younger Any person Hospital staff
New York[42] 30 days or younger A parent “The child may be left with an appropriate person at a suitable location.” Examples of suitable locations include a hospital, fire station, or police department.
North Carolina[43] Younger than 7 days A parent 1.) A health care provider at a hospital

2.) A law enforcement officer who is on duty or at a police station or sheriff’s department

3.) A social services worker who is on duty or at a local department of social services

4.) A certified emergency medical service worker who is on duty or at a fire or emergency medical services station

North Dakota[44] Under 1 year A parent or person designated by the parent Any hospital
Ohio[45] Younger than 30 days A parent 1.) A medical worker in a hospital

2.) A medical worker at a fire department or another emergency service location

3.) A peace officer at a law enforcement agency

*This state contains four baby box locations.[46]

 

Oklahoma[47] 7 days or younger A parent 1.) A medical provider

 

An employee at:

2.) Police station

3.) Fire station

4.) Child protective services agency

5.) Another medical facility

Oregon[48] 30 days or younger A parent 1.) Hospital

2.) Birthing clinics

3.) Physician’s office

4.) Sheriff’s office

5.) Police station

6.) Fire station[49]

Pennsylvania[50] Up to 28 days A parent 1.) A hospital

2.) A police officer at a police station

3.) An emergency services provider at an EMS station

 

Puerto Rico[51] 3 days or younger A mother 1.) Hospital

2.) Emergency medical services provider

3.) Health care facility

Rhode Island[52] 30 days or younger A parent 1.) Hospital

2.) Open medical emergency facility

3.) Police station

4.) Fire station

South Carolina[53] 60 days or younger Any person 1.) Hospital

2.) Hospital out-patient facility

3.) Law enforcement agency

4.) Fire station

5.) EMS station

6.) Staffed house of worship

South Dakota[54] Less than 60 days A parent 1.) Hospitals or clinics

2.) Emergency medical services provider (EMT)

3.) Licensed child placement agency

4.) Law enforcement officers

5.) Any department of social services office

6.) A firefighter

 

Tennessee[55] Within 2 weeks of birth A mother 1.) Hospital

2.) Birthing center

3.) Community health department

4.) Outpatient walk-in clinic

5.) 24/7 staffed fire department

6.) 24/7 staffed police department

7.) 24/7 staffed EMS facility[56]

Texas[57] 60 days old or younger A parent 1.) Hospital

2.) Fire station

3.) Emergency medical services (EMS) station

Utah[58] 72 hours or younger[59] A parent or person designated by the parent 1.) A 24/7 hospital
Vermont[60] Up to 30 days A parent or person designated by the parent 1.) A health care facility

2.) Fire station

3.) Police station

4.) Place of worship

5.) An adoption agency licensed in Vermont

6.) “A 911 emergency responder at a location where the responder and the person have agreed to transfer the child”

Virginia[61] 14 days or younger A parent 1.) Hospital with 24/7 emergency services

2.) An Emergency medical services agency that is staffed

Washington[62] Up to 72 hours A parent 1.) A hospital emergency room

2.) A fire station during hours of operation

3.) A federally designated rural health clinic during hours of operation

 

West Virginia[63] Not older than 30 days A parent 1.) Hospital

2.) Health care facility

Wisconsin[64] 72 hours or younger A parent 1.) Hospital

2.) Police station

3.) Fire station

4.) Sheriff’s office

5.) “Any other place where a law enforcement officer, EMT, or hospital staff member is located.”

Wyoming[65] Not older than 14 days A parent or person designated by the parent 24/7 staffed, full-time:

1.) Hospital

2.) Fire station

3.) Police department

4.) Sheriff’s office

5.) “Any other place of shelter and safety identified by the Department of Family Services that meets the requirements of rules and regulations” promulgated pursuant to W.S. 14-11-107.”

 

Similar to the varying criteria for legal relinquishment of an infant, each state has its own policy regarding the anonymity of the parent or relinquishing individual as well as parental rights following relinquishment of the infant.

 

Anonymity of Parents and Individuals Relinquishing an Infant Under Safe Haven Laws

*Some states fall into several categories.

**Most states require that infants be relinquished unharmed to maintain anonymity.

 

States that guarantee complete anonymity of the individual relinquishing an infant (16 plus D.C.): 

Arizona, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, and the District of Columbia.[66]

 

States that cannot necessitate the identification of the individual relinquishing an infant (27 and Puerto Rico):

Alaska, Arizona, Delaware, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming, and Puerto Rico.[67]

 

States that provide confidentiality for information that is provided by a parent relinquishing an infant (15):

California, Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.[68]

 

 

 

Parental Rights Under Safe Haven Laws

 

States with procedural requirements for parental reclaiming of relinquished infants (20):

*Within specific time limits and prior to termination of parental rights.

 

California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.[69]

 

States where a non-relinquishing father can seek custody of a relinquished infant (5):

 

Iowa, Missouri, Montana, South Dakota, and Tennessee.[70]

 

States where infant relinquishment includes termination of parental rights (18):

*No further contact with parents is needed to place infant for adoption

 

Alaska, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.[71]

 

 

Safe Haven Policy Recommendations

 

While Safe Haven laws are all based on the basic principles of avoiding infant abandonment and parental prosecution, each law contains unique criteria. In order to more effectively serve the infants and parents utilizing these laws, it is paramount to provide basic criteria as a minimum. Ultimately, as resources allow, states could strive to provide more uniform laws across all 50 states, D.C., and Puerto Rico to serve those living close to state lines and out-of-state college students who may not be aware of differences in the law from state to state.

 

States could consider the following recommendations for first-look improvements:

 

  • Extend the age an infant may be legally relinquished to at least 30 days, if currently below that.
  • Exclude substance abuse (i.e., an infant born addicted to drugs) from the term “harmed.”
  • Extend parental rights to 30 days after relinquishment. Support parental reunification whenever possible.
  • Include college police and college counseling offices where a staff member is present as Safe Haven locations.
  • Strengthen post-partum education and treatment options.
  • Address father’s parental rights through a putative rights registry

 

 

In addition to traditional Safe Haven laws, some states have implemented Safe Haven baby boxes and Safe Haven baby drawers.

 

Safe Haven Baby Boxes

 

In 2016 the first “baby box” was built in Indiana operating under the Safe Haven law. The founder, Monica Kelsey, was inspired to start her operation after learning she herself was an abandoned infant, and after seeing a baby box at a church in Cape Town, South Africa. Baby Boxes serve as a very private way for women who are seeking to relinquish their infants.[72]  Currently, there are 88 Baby Boxes located in five states: Indiana (71), Ohio (4), Florida (1), Arkansas (8), and Kentucky (4).[73] Additionally, Arizona has six baby drawer locations onsite at hospitals that operate similarly to the baby boxes.

 

Since the inception of Indiana’s Baby Box program in 2016, Indiana has not reported any infant deaths resulting from illegal infant abandonment.[74] According to the Safe Haven Baby Boxes organization, 12 babies have been surrendered inside Baby Boxes since 2016, two babies have been surrendered at Baby Boxes installed at fire stations, and close to 100 babies have been surrendered under the Safe Haven law after contacting the Safe Haven Baby Boxes national hotline.[75]

 

Baby Boxes, in Safe Haven fashion, are simple for the relinquishing parent to use.

 

1.) Relinquishing party locates a Safe Haven Baby Box. Locations here.

2.) Relinquishing party approaches and opens Baby Box which triggers a silent alarm that alerts dispatch.

3.) Relinquishing party places the infant in the bassinet within the Baby Box which triggers a second call to dispatch.

4.) The relinquishing party then has the option of either pressing a button or simply closing the Baby Box door which sends out a third call. The door also automatically locks to keep the baby safe. Additionally, the box is temperature controlled.

5.) Emergency personnel retrieve the baby.[76]

 

Safe Haven Baby Boxes provide the total anonymity that some parents may desire when relinquishing an infant. Relinquishing an infant under traditional Safe Haven legislation involves handing the infant directly to another individual and stating that you wish to relinquish the baby under the Safe Haven law. Baby Boxes, alternatively, do not involve any sort of human contact. While some see this as a downside to Baby Boxes, others see it as helpful for some parents who may fear recognition, especially in smaller locales.

 

Community Involvement

 

In many states, Safe Haven laws rely on word of mouth for educational efforts, but communities can get involved by educating their citizens about Safe Haven laws and making sure that Safe Haven drop-off locations are clearly marked. One potentially effective educational effort would be including curriculum detailing Safe Haven laws in high schools. College and university student life staff, medical staff, and security should also be educated about their state’s Safe Haven laws.

Communities can invest in their citizens by clearly and publicly marking Safe Haven drop-off locations and providing literature to individuals relinquishing infants. Some practical resources exist to support increasing signage of locations https://www.nationalsafehavenalliance.org/signage, as well as installing Baby Boxes in communities. https://shbb.org/resources

 

Conclusion

 

At the heart of the Safe Haven law movement is a desire to protect and love parents and their babies. Safe Haven laws provide a loving and courageous option for parents who discern that, for whatever reason, they are not able to care for their babies. Safe Haven laws give vulnerable parents the peace of mind that their infants will be cared for medically, emotionally, and financially. Communities should strive to spread awareness about Safe Haven laws and reach vulnerable parents and their babies through education, literature, and clear signage posted at Safe Haven locations. Communities and legislatures should also work to increase awareness of the many other social programs that are available to struggling parents, including post-partum depression education and treatment, temporary placement, and special needs assistance programs. Being a parent can be difficult, but community support is available. Today, over 4,382 babies have been relinquished under Safe Haven laws and are being cared for.[77]

 

 

Hannah Howard M.S. is a research associate at the Charlotte Lozier Institute.

 

 

Information on Safe Haven Laws

National Safe Haven Alliance

https://www.nationalsafehavenalliance.org/

1-888-510-BABY (2229) (24/7 crisis line)

Text SAFEHAVEN to 313131

 

Information on Baby Boxes

Safe Haven Baby Boxes

https://shbb.org/

1-866-992-2291 (24/7 crisis line)

(888)742-2133

shbb@SafeHavenBabyBoxes.com

 

Information on Arizona Baby Drawers

Arizona Safe Baby Haven Foundation

https://azsafebabyhaven.org/information/

1-866-707-2229 (24/7 crisis line)

 

 

Please contact info@lozierinstitute.org with any information, updates, or questions.

 

 

 

[1] National Safe Haven Alliance (Unpublished log; accessed via email)

[2] The Holy Bible, Exodus 2:1-10, https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%202%3A1-10&version=NIV (Accessed 01/14/2021)

[3] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Infant Safe Haven Laws, https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/systemwide/laws-policies/statutes/safehaven/ (Accessed 01/14/2021)

[4] Alabama Health Department, Alabama’s Safe Place for Newborn’s Law, H.B. 115/Act Number 00-760 (Passed in May 2000), https://www.alabamapublichealth.gov/cdr/assets/safeplacelaw.pdf (Accessed 01/10/2021).

[5] Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Safe Surrender of Infants Act, http://dhss.alaska.gov/ocs/Pages/safesurrender/default.aspx (Accessed 01/10/2021).

[6] Arizona Department of Child Safety, Safe Haven Law Information, https://dcs.az.gov/report-child-abuse/safe-haven-newborn-information (Accessed 01/10/2021).

[7] Safe Haven Baby Boxes, Baby Box Locations, https://shbb.org/locations (Accessed December 1, 2021).

[8] Arkansas Department of Human Services, Arkansas Safe Haven, https://humanservices.arkansas.gov/resources/safe-haven (Accessed 01/10/2021).

[9] Safe Haven Baby Boxes, Baby Box Locations, https://shbb.org/locations (Accessed December 1, 2021).

[10] California Department of Social Services, Safely Surrendered Baby Frequently Asked Questions, https://www.cdss.ca.gov/Portals/9/OCAP/SSB%20FAQ.pdf?ver=2019-03-12-162500-480 (Accessed 01/10/2021).

[11] Colorado Safe Haven for Newborns, “About,” https://coloradosafehaven.com/about-us-1 (Accessed 01/10/2021).

[12] Connecticut Department of Children and Families, SAFE Haven Act for Newborns, https://portal.ct.gov/DCF/1-DCF/SAFE-Havens-Act-for-Newborns (Accessed 01/10/2021).

[13] Delaware.gov, Safe Arms for Babies, https://www.dhss.delaware.gov/dhss/dph/chca/dphahsab01.html (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[14] D.C. Child and Family Services Agency, Safe Haven for Newborns, https://cfsa.dc.gov/service/safe-havens-newborns (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[15] Uslegal.com, Florida Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/florida-safe-haven-law/ (Accessed, 01/14/2021).

[16] Safe Haven Baby Boxes, Baby Box Locations, https://shbb.org/locations (Accessed December 1, 2021).

[17] Uslegal.com, Georgia Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/georgia-safe-haven-laws/ (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[18] Uslegal.com, Hawaii Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/hawaii-safe-haven-law/ (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[19] Uslegal.com, Idaho Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/idaho-safe-heaven-law/ (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[20] Illinoislegalaid.com, Using the Safe Haven Law to give up a child, https://www.illinoislegalaid.org/legal-information/using-safe-haven-law-give-child (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[21] Indiana Code, IC 31-34-2.5, http://iga.in.gov/legislative/laws/2015/ic/titles/031/articles/034/chapters/2.5/ (Accessed 01/14/2021). http://184.175.130.101/legislative/2021/bills/house/1032#document-8fee6b07 (Accessed 09/20/21).

[22] Indiana General Assembly, House Enrolled Act No. 1032, http://184.175.130.101/legislative/2021/bills/house/1032#document-8fee6b07, 2021 Session. (Accessed 09/21/2021).

[23] Safe Haven Baby Boxes, Baby Box Locations, https://shbb.org/locations (Accessed December 1, 2021).

[24] Iowa Department of Human Services, Safe Haven, https://dhs.iowa.gov/safe-haven (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[25] Uslegal.com, Kansas Safe Haven Law, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/kansas-safe-haven-law/ (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[26] Ky.gov, 4.21 Safe Infants Act, https://manuals.sp.chfs.ky.gov/chapter4/11/Pages/421SafeInfantsAct.aspx (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[27] Safe Haven Baby Boxes, Baby Box Locations, https://shbb.org/locations (Accessed December 1, 2021).

[28] Louisiana Department of Children and Family Services, About Safe Haven, http://www.dcfs.louisiana.gov/page/about-safe-haven (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[29] Maine Legislature, Child and Family Services and Child Protection Act, https://legislature.maine.gov/legis/statutes/22/title22sec4018.html (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[30] Maryland Department of Human Services, Safe Haven (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[31] Mass.gov, Baby Safe Haven, https://www.mass.gov/baby-safe-haven (Accessed 01/14/2021)

[32] Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, Safe Delivery, https://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/0,5885,7-339-71548_7200—,00.html (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[33] Minnesota Department of Human Services, Safe Place for Newborns, https://mn.gov/dhs/people-we-serve/children-and-families/services/child-protection/programs-services/safe-place-for-newborns/ (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[34] Uslegal.com, Mississippi Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/mississippi-safe-haven-laws/ (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[35] Missouri Department of Social Services, Missouri’s Safe Place for Newborns Law, https://dss.mo.gov/cd/keeping-kids-safe/safe-place-for-newborns.htm (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[36] Montana Department of Health and Human Services, What is the “Montana Safe Haven Newborn Protection Act?,” https://dphhs.mt.gov/CFSD/CANPublications/MontanaSafeHavenNewborn (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[37] Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, Safe Haven Law and History, http://dhhs.ne.gov/Pages/Safe-Haven.aspx (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[38] Uslegal.com, Nevada Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/nevada-safe-haven-laws/ (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[39] New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, Children Left at Hospitals or Safe Havens, https://www.dhhs.nh.gov/dcyf/documents/dcyfpolicy1181.pdf (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[40] New Jersey Safe Haven, https://www.njsafehaven.org/ (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[41] Uslegal.com, New Mexico Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/new-mexico-safe-haven-laws/ (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[42] New York Office of Children and Family Services, Abandoned Infant Protection Act, https://ocfs.ny.gov/programs/safe/ (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[43] North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Safe Surrender (Surrender Newborns Safely), https://www.ncdhhs.gov/assistance/pregnancy-services/safe-surrender (Accessed 01/14/2021).

[44] USlegal.com, North Dakota Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/north-dakota-safe-haven-laws/ (Accessed 01/30/2021).

[45] Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, Safe Havens, https://jfs.ohio.gov/safehavens/ (Accessed 01/30/2021).

[46] Safe Haven Baby Boxes, Baby Box Locations, https://shbb.org/locations (Accessed December 1, 2021).

[47] Uslegal.com, Oklahoma Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/oklahoma-safe-haven-laws/ (Accessed 1/30/21).

[48] Oregon Health Authority, Safe Surrender for Newborns, https://www.oregon.gov/oha/PH/HEALTHYPEOPLEFAMILIES/BABIES/SAFESURRENDER/Pages/index.aspx (Accessed 01/30/21).

[49] Oregon Health Authority, Surrender Facilities: Overview and Guidelines, https://www.oregon.gov/oha/PH/HEALTHYPEOPLEFAMILIES/BABIES/SAFESURRENDER/Pages/facility.aspx (Accessed 01/30/2021).

[50] Pennsylvania Department of Human Services, Safe Haven for Pennsylvania Newborns, https://www.dhs.pa.gov/secretsafe/Pages/default.aspx (Accessed 01/30/21).

[51] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Infant Safe Haven Laws, https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubpdfs/safehaven.pdf (Accessed 01/30/21).

[52] Rhode Island Department of Children, Youth and Families, Safe Haven for Infants Act, http://www.dcyf.ri.gov/policyregs/safe_haven_for_infants_act_print.htm (Accessed 01/30/21).

[53] South Carolina Department of Social Services, Safe Haven for Babies, https://dss.sc.gov/prevention/safe-haven-for-babies/ (Accessed 01/30/21).

[54] South Dakota Department of Social Services, Safe Havens, https://dss.sd.gov/childprotection/babymoses.aspx (Accessed 01/30/21).

[55] Tennessee Department of Children’s Services, Safe Haven Law, https://www.tn.gov/dcs/program-areas/child-safety/safe-haven-law.html (Accessed 01/30/21).

[56] Secret Safe Place Tennessee, “Find a Location,” http://www.secretsafeplacetn.org/find-a-location.html (Accessed 01/30/21).

[57] Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, Baby Moses Law or Safe Haven, https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Child_Safety/Resources/baby_moses.asp (Accessed 01/30/21).

[58] Utah Newborn Safe Haven Project, About Us, http://www.utahsafehaven.org/about.html (Accessed 01/30/21).

[59] Uslegal.com, Utah Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/utah-safe-haven-laws/ (Accessed 01/30/21).

[60] Vermont Department for Children and Families, Baby Safe Havens in Vermont, https://dcf.vermont.gov/prevention/safe-havens (Accessed 01/30/21).

[61] Uslegal.com, Virginia Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/virginia-safe-haven-laws/ (Accessed 01/30/21).

[62] Washington State Department of Children, Youth and Families, Safety of Newborn Children Law, https://www.dcyf.wa.gov/safety/safety-newborn-law (Accessed 01/30/21).

[63] Uslegal.com, West Virginia Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/west-virginia-safe-haven-laws/ (Accessed 01/20/21).

[64] Wisconsin Department of Children and Families, Safe Haven for Newborns Information, https://dcf.wisconsin.gov/cps/safehaven (Accessed 01/30/21).

[65] Uslegal.com, Wyoming Safe Haven Laws, https://safehavenlaws.uslegal.com/wyoming-safe-haven-laws/ (Accessed, 01/30/21).

[66] Citations from Table 1.

[67] Ibid.

[68] Ibid.

[69] Ibid.

[70] Ibid.

[71] Ibid.

[72] Safe Haven Baby Boxes, “About Us,” https://shbb.org/about-us (Accessed 01/10/2021).

[73] Safe Haven Baby Boxes, “Location,” https://shbb.org/locations (Accessed 08/19/2021).

[74] Safe Haven Baby Boxes, “More FAQ,” https://shbb.org/resources (Accessed 01/13/2021).

[75] 1-866-992-2291

[76] Safe Haven Baby Boxes, “FAQ,” https://shbb.org/resources (Accessed 01/13/2021).

[77] National Safe Haven Alliance, Homepage, https://www.nationalsafehavenalliance.org/, (Accessed 08/19/2021).

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