Update: COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates and Abortion-Derived Cell Lines

David Prentice, Ph.D.  

To view this chart as a PDF, see: COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates and Abortion-Derived Cell Lines

 

Updated March 3, 2021

 

Accurate information about the development and production of COVID-19 vaccines is essential, especially because many proposed candidates use newer molecular technologies for production of a viral vaccine. One concern regarding the ethical assessment of viral vaccine candidates is the potential use of abortion-derived cell lines in the development, production or testing of a vaccine. This analysis utilizes data from the primary scientific literature when available, along with data from clinical trial documents, reputable vaccine tracking websites, and published commercial information.1 It is the hope that by providing accurate data, recipients can make well-informed decisions regarding vaccine choices.

 

For additional background and guidance, please see:

* A Visual Aid to Viral Infection and Vaccine Production for a visual primer on the various strategies for viral vaccine production.

* COVID-19 Vaccines & Fetal Cell Lines for an infographic description of how fetal cell lines are sometimes used to produce vaccines.

 

Flow Chart for Creation and Testing of Vaccines

Design & Development: conceptualization, preparatory experiments, and specification for how vaccine will be constructed and produced.

Production: process used to manufacture final vaccine to be given to people.

 

Confirmatory Lab Tests on Product: tests to analyze quality, nucleic acid or protein sequence, protein conformation, antibody reactivity, etc. of final vaccine product.

 

Vaccination: giving final produced vaccine to people.

 

 

 

Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccine Candidates

Last Updated 3 March 2021

 

🟩 DOES NOT USE abortion-derived cell line

 

 

🔺 DOES USE abortion-derived cell line

 

 

🟩🔺 SOME tests DO NOT use abortion-derived cells, SOME DO.

 

Currently undetermined

Sponsor(s)1 Country Strategy2 Clinical Trial Status3 Public Funding4 Design & Development Production Confirm-atory
Lab Tests
WHOLE VIRUS VACCINE – LIVE ATTENUATED or INACTIVATED
Beijing Institute of Biological Products/ Sinopharm China Inactivated virus

“BBIBP-CorV”

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (2 weeks apart)

Early approval in China

Phase 3

Phase 3

🟩

Vero monkey cells

 

🟩

Vero monkey cells

 

🟩

Cytopathic test

Wuhan Institute of Biological Products/ Sinopharm China Inactivated virus

“New Crown COVID-19”

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (2 weeks apart)

Phase 3

Phase 3

Phase 3

Early approval in China

Phase 1/2

🟩

Vero monkey cells
Xia et al., JAMA 324, 951, 13Aug2020

🟩

Vero monkey cells

Xia et al., JAMA 324, 951, 13Aug2020

🟩
Plaque reduction neutralization test
Vero monkey cells
Xia et al., JAMA 324, 951, 13Aug2020
Bharat Biotech/Indian Council of Medical Research India Inactivated virus
“BBV152”
Given: Intramuscular
2 doses (2 weeks apart)
India EUA granted

Phase 3

Phase 3

Phase 1/2

Phase 1/2

Phase 1/2

🟩

Vero monkey cells

Yadav et al., ResearchSquare 10Sept2020

🟩

Vero monkey cells

Yadav et al., ResearchSquare 10Sept2020

🟩
Antibody ELISA
Plaque reduction
Vero monkey cellsYadav et al., ResearchSquare 10Sept2020
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences China Inactivated virus
“SARS-CoV-2 vaccine””
Given: Intramuscular
2 doses (2 weeks apart)
Phase 3

Phase 1/2

Phase 1/2

🟩

Vero monkey cells

Pu et al., medRxiv, 6Oct2020

🟩

Vero monkey cells

Pu et al., medRxiv, 6Oct2020

🟩
Antibody ELISA
Neutralizing antibody cytopathic effect
Vero monkey cells
Pu et al., medRxiv, 6Oct2020
Supplement
John Paul II Medical Research Institute USA Live attenuated virus

 

Pre-clinical 🟩

Ethical cell lines as a matter of policy

🟩

Perinatal human cells (term umbilical cord and placental)

Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems Kazakhstan Inactivated virus

“QazCovid-in”

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (3 weeks apart)

Phase 3

Phase 1/2

Sinovac Biotech Co., Ltd. China Inactivated virus

“CoronaVac”

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (2 weeks apart)

 

China granted conditional marketing authorization 8Feb2021
Chile, Brazil, Turkey, Indonesia EUA granted

Phase 3

Early approval in China

Phase 3

Phase 1/2

Phase 1/2

Phase 1/2

🟩

Vero monkey cells

 

🟩

Vero monkey cells

Gao et al., Science 369, 77, 3July2020

🟩🔺

protein test

HEK293 cells

Supplement Gao et al., Science 369, 77, 3July2020

Valneva and Dynavax France
USA
UK
Inactivated Virus
“VLA2001”
plus adjuvant CpG1018
Given: Intramuscular
2 doses (3 weeks apart)
Phase 1/2 🟩

Vero monkey cells

 

🟩

Vero monkey cells

Same platform as IXIARO, Valneva press release, 22April2020

VIRAL VECTOR-BASED VACCINE
Altimmune USA Replication-deficient

Adenovirus vector

“AdCOVID”

Given: Intranasal
1-2 doses

Phase 1/2 🔺

PER.C6 cells

🔺

PER.C6 cells

Same platform as NasoVAX

NasoVAX uses PER.C6

Licensed PER.C6 from Janssen

🔺
AstraZeneca

University of Oxford

 

USA

UK

Replication-deficient

Adenovirus vector

“AZD1222”

“ChAdOX1nCoV-19”

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (4 weeks apart)

UK EUA granted

India EUA granted

Phase 3

Phase 3

Phase 3

Phase 3

Phase 2/3

Phase 2/3

Phase 1/2

Phase 1/2

Operation Warp Speed

HHS-BARDA

$1.2 Billion

CEPI up to $384 Million

🔺

HEK293 cells

🔺

HEK293 cells

van Doremalen et al., Nature, 30July2020

🔺
HEK293 cellsvan Doremalen et al., Nature, 30July2020
MRC-5 cells
Almuqrin et al., ResearchSquare 20Oct2020
CanSino Biologics, Inc.

Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, PLA of China

China Replication-deficient

Adenovirus vector

“Ad5-nCoV”

Given: Intramuscular

1 dose

Phase 3

Phase 3

Phase 2

Phase 2

Phase 2

Phase 1

Phase 1

🔺

HEK293 cells

🔺

HEK293 cells

Biospace, 12May2020

🔺
Gamaleya Research Institute Russia Replication-deficient

Adenovirus vectors

(rAd26-S+rAd5-S)

“Gam-COVID-Vac”

“Sputnik V”

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (3 weeks apart)

Phase 3

Phase 3

EUA in 30 countries as of Feb2021

Early approval in Russia August 2020

Phase 1/2

Phase 1/2

🔺

HEK293 cells

🔺

HEK293 cells
Gamaleya has not published details on this vaccine, but has posted information on use of cell lines for their other adenoviral vaccines

🔺
ImmunityBio and NantKwest USA Replication-deficient Adenovirus vector recombinant
“hAd5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD”
Given: Subcutaneous
Phase 1
Phase 1
Phase 1
🔺
E.C7 cells
(derivative of HEK293 cells)
Rice et al., bioRxiv 30July2020
🔺

E.C7 cells
(derivative of HEK293 cells)
Rice et al., bioRxiv 30July2020

🔺
Protein and antibody tests
HEK293T cells
Rice et al., bioRxiv 30July2020
Seiling et al., medRxiv 6Nov2020
Institut Pasteur and Themis and Merck USA

France

Replication-competent recombinant measles virus

“TMV-083”

Given: Intramuscular

Development Discontinued
Phase 1/2

Phase 1

CEPI up to $4.9 Million 🔺HEK293T

Development and rescue of recombinant measles virus

Hörner et al., PNAS 22Dec2020

Hörner et al. Supplement

“SARS-CoV-2 S-encoding vaccine candidates… were generated as described previously

 

🟩

Vero monkey cells

Hörner et al., PNAS 22Dec2020

Hörner et al. Supplement

🟩🔺
Lentiviral vectors for antigenic DCFusogenic testHEK293TFusogenic testS protein expressionVero monkey cellsHörner et al., PNAS 22Dec2020

Hörner et al. Supplement

Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) Israel Replication-competent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG)
“IIBR-100”
Given: Intramuscular1 dose
Phase 1/2 🟩
BHK hamster cells
Vero monkey cells
Yahalom-Ronen et al., bioRxiv 19June2020
🟩
Vero monkey cells
Yahalom-Ronen et al., bioRxiv 19June2020
🟩
Plaque reduction; immunofluorescence
Vero monkey cells
Yahalom-Ronen et al., bioRxiv 19June2020
Janssen Research & Development, Inc.

Johnson & Johnson

USA Replication-deficient

Adenovirus vector

“Ad26.COV2-S”
Given: Intramuscular

1 dose
(some trials use 2 doses, 8 weeks apart)

FDA Emergency Use Authorization Approved

Phase 3

Phase 3

Phase 1/2

Operation Warp Speed

HHS-BARDA

$1,457,887,081 total

🔺

PER.C6 cells

🔺

PER.C6 cells

Tostanoski et al., Nature Medicine, 3Sept2020;

J&J, 30March2020;

Janssen Vaccine Technologies

🔺
Rega Institute, KU Leuven Belgium Replication-competent attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF17D) vector

“YF-S0”

Given: Intramuscular
1 dose

Pre-clinical 🟩

BHK-21J hamster cells
Sanchez-Felipe et al., Nature, 1Dec2020

🟩

BHK-21J hamster cells
Sanchez-Felipe et al., Nature, 1Dec2020

🟩🔺
Antibody titer
Pseudovirus
HEK293T cells
Immunoblot
BHK-21J hamster cells
Sanchez-Felipe et al., Nature, 1Dec2020
Merck and IAVI USA Replication-competent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG)

“V590”

Given: Intramuscular

Development Discontinued
Phase 1
Operation Warp Speed

HHS-BARDA

$38,033,570

🟩

Vero monkey cells

🟩

Vero monkey cells

Use rVSV Ervebo platform

Ervebo uses Vero cell culture-11 Description

Shenzhen Geno-immune

Medical Institute

China Lentivirus minigenes +

Adult human APC (antigen-presenting cells)

 

Phase 1 🟩
Shenzhen Geno-immune

Medical Institute

China Lentivirus minigenes +

Adult human CD/T cells (dendritic cells and T cells)

“LV-SMENP-DC”

Phase 1/2 🟩
Vaxart USA Replication-deficient

Adenovirus vector

“VXA-CoV2-1”

plus dsRNA adjuvant

Given: Oral

Phase 1 🔺

HEK293 cells

🔺

HEK293 cells

Moore et al., bioRxiv 6Sept2020

🔺
PROTEIN-BASED VACCINE
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical/Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences China Protein vaccine

Recombinant RBD dimer

plus adjuvant

Given: Intramuscular

2 or 3 doses (30 days apart)

Phase 3

Phase 2

Phase 1/2

Phase 1

🔺

HEK293T cells

Dai et al., Cell 6Aug2020

🟩

CHO hamster cells

Dai et al., Cell 6Aug2020

🔺

Pseudovirus

HEK293T cells

Dai et al., Cell 6Aug2020

Clover Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. China Protein vaccine

“SCB-2019”

plus adjuvant CpG 1018

Given: Intramuscular
2 doses (3 weeks apart)

Phase 2/3

Phase 1

CEPI up to $69.5 Million 🟩cDNA in expression vector; transfect CHO hamster cells

Liang et al., bioRxiv, 24Sept2020

Trimer-Tag system;

Liu et al., Scientific Reports 2017

🟩

CHO hamster cells

Trimer-Tag system;

Liu et al., Scientific Reports 2017

🟩🔺
PseudovirusHEK293 cellsRef’d: Nie et al., Emerging Microbes & Infections 24Mar2020Cytopathic effectVero monkey cellsLiang et al., bioRxiv, 24Sept2020
COVAXX and United Biomedical USA
Taiwan
Protein vaccine

“UB-612”

S1-RBD-protein; Multitope Peptide-Based Vaccine (MVP)

Given: Intramuscular
2 doses (4 weeks apart)

Phase 2/3

Phase 1

🟩cDNA in expression vector; transfect CHO hamster cells

Guirakhoo et al., bioRxiv, 30Nov2020

🟩

CHO hamster cells
Guirakhoo et al., bioRxiv, 30Nov2020

🟩🔺
Antibody blocked binding to hACE2 HEK293
Guirakhoo et al., bioRxiv, 30Nov2020
Federal Budgetary Research Institution State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology “Vektor” Russia Protein vaccine
“EpiVacCorona”
chemically synthesized peptide antigens of SARS-CoV-2, conjugated to a carrier protein
adsorbed on an aluminum-containing adjuvant
Given: Intramuscular2 doses (3 weeks apart)
Early approval in Russia Oct 2020

Phase 1/2

🟩

chemically synthesized peptide antigens

Instituto Finlay de Vacunas Cuba Protein vaccine
“”Finlay-FR-1”
Receptor-binding domain (RBD) SARS-CoV-2 spike + adjuvant
Given: Intramuscular2 doses (4 weeks apart)
Phase 1/2
Phase 1

RBD produced in mammalian cells
Garcia-Rivera, MEDICC Review, 30Oct2020

RBD produced in mammalian cells
Garcia-Rivera, MEDICC Review, 30Oct2020
Instituto Finlay de Vacunas Cuba Protein vaccine
“Finlay-FR-2”
Receptor-binding domain (RBD) SARS-CoV-2 spike chemically bound tetanus toxoid + adjuvant
Given: Intramuscular2 doses (4 weeks apart)
Phase 2
Phase 1

RBD produced in mammalian cells
Garcia-Rivera, MEDICC Review, 30Oct2020

RBD produced in mammalian cells
Garcia-Rivera, MEDICC Review, 30Oct2020
John Paul II Medical Research Institute USA Recombinant Protein

Perinatal human cells (term umbilical cord and placental)

Pre-clinical 🟩

Ethical cell lines as a matter of policy

🟩

Perinatal human cells (term umbilical cord and placental)

Kentucky BioProcessing, Inc.
(British American Tobacco)
USA Protein vaccine
“KBP-201”
Plant-expressed RBD
Given: Intramuscular2 doses (3 weeks apart)
Phase 1/2 🟩

Recombinant DNA sequence for RBD of SARS-CoV-2

🟩

Plant expression of RBD peptide

Medicago Canada Protein on Virus-Like Particle

“CoVLP”

Plant-expressed spike protein particle with adjuvant, CpG1018 or AS03

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (3 weeks apart)

Phase 2/3

Phase 2

Phase 1

🟩

Recombinant DNA sequence in Agrobacterium, transformation of plant cells

🟩

Plant expression of protein and VLP

Ward et al., medRxiv 6Nov2020

🟩🔺

Pseudovirus

HEK293 cells

Ward et al., medRxiv 6Nov2020

Novavax USA Protein vaccine

“NVX-CoV2373”

Baculovirus expression

plus Matrix M adjuvant

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (3 weeks apart)

Phase 3

Phase 3

Phase 2

Phase 1

Operation Warp Speed

HHS-BARDA

$1,600,434,523

CEPI up to $388 Million

🟩 🟩

Sf9 insect cells
Bangaru et al., Science, 27Nov2020
Bangaru et al., Supplement
Bangaru et al., bioRxiv preprint, 6Aug2020;

Graphical view

🟩🔺

Pseudovirus

HEK293 cells
Bangaru et al., Science, 27Nov2020
Bangaru et al., Supplement
Bangaru et al., bioRxiv preprint, 6Aug2020

Sanofi and GSK

Protein Sciences

 

USA

France

Protein vaccine

Baculovirus expression

plus AS03 adjuvant

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (3 weeks apart)

Phase 2

Phase 1/2

Operation Warp Speed

HHS-BARDA

$2,072,775,336 total

🟩 🟩

Sf9 insect cells

Baculovirus expressed recombinant protein ;

 

Sorrento USA Protein vaccine

“T-VIVA-19”

SARS-Cov-2 spike protein S1 domain fused with human IgG-Fc

Given: Intramuscular

Pre-clinical 🟩 🟩

CHO cells

Herrmann et al., bioRxiv preprint, 30June2020

🟩

Antibody ELISA;

Neutralization assays

Vero monkey cells

Herrmann et al., bioRxiv preprint, 30June2020

Sorrento USA Protein vaccine

“STI-6991”

SARS-Cov-2 spike protein expressed on K562 cells

Pre-clinical 🟩

K562 cells

Concept: Ji et al., Medicine in Drug Discovery March2020

University of Pittsburgh USA Protein vaccine

Adenovirus-expressed

recombinant proteins

“PittCoVacc”

Given: Microneedle arrays

Pre-clinical 🔺

HEK293 cells

🔺

HEK293 cells

Kim et al., EBioMedicine , 2April2020

🔺
University of Queensland and CSL Ltd. Australia Protein vaccine

“V451”

Recombinant protein with proprietary molecular clamp

Given: Intramuscular

HALTED

Phase 1

Phase 1

Phase 1

CEPI up to $4.5 Million 🟩 🟩

expiCHO hamster cells

 

RNA VACCINE
Arcturus Therapeutics USA mRNA vaccine

self-transcribing, replicating

“LUNAR-CoV19” (“ARCT-021”)

in vitro transcription reaction with T7 RNA polymerase from STARR plasmid template

LUNAR proprietary lipid nanoparticle encapsulated

Given: Intramuscular

1 dose

Phase 2

Phase 2

 

Phase 1/2

🟩

Sequence designed on computer

🟩

No cells used

de Alwis et al., bioRxiv 3Sept2020

🟩🔺

protein test

HEK293

de Alwis et al., bioRxiv 3Sept2020

CureVac Germany mRNA vaccine

non-replicating

“CVnCoV”

in vitro transcription

lipid nanoparticle encapsulated

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (4 weeks apart)

Phase 3

Phase 2/3

Phase 2

Phase 1

CEPI up to $15.3 Million 🟩

Sequence designed on computer

🟩

No cells used

Rauch et al., bioRxiv 9Feb2021

🟩

Protein test

Reticulocyte lysate,
HeLa cells

Rauch et al., bioRxiv 9Feb2021

Moderna, Inc.

with National Institutes of Health

USA mRNA vaccine

non-replicating

“mRNA-1273”

T7 RNA polymerase-mediated transcription from DNA plasmid template

LNP (lipid nanoparticle) encapsulated

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (4 weeks apart)

FDA Emergency Use Authorization Approved

Phase 3

Phase 2

Phase 1

Operation Warp Speed

HHS-BARDA

$2,479,894,979 total

CEPI up to $1 Million

 

🟩

Sequence designed on computer

🟩

No cells used

Corbett et al., Nature , 5Aug2020

🟩🔺

protein test

& pseudovirus

HEK293 cells

Corbett et al., Nature , 5Aug2020

Pfizer and BioNTech USA

Germany

mRNA vaccine

non-replicating

“BNT-162a1,b1,b2,b3,c2”

nucleoside-modified mRNA in vitro transcribed by T7 polymerase from a plasmid DNA template

LNP (lipid nanoparticle) encapsulated

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (3 weeks apart)

FDA Emergency Use Authorization Approved

UK EUA granted

Phase 2/3

Phase 1/2

Phase 1/2

Phase 1

Phase 1

 

Operation Warp Speed

HHS-BARDA

$1.95 Billion

🟩

Sequence designed on computer

🟩

No cells used

Vogel et al., bioRxiv 8Sept2020

🟩🔺

protein test

& pseudovirus

HEK293 cells

Vogel et al., bioRxiv 8Sept2020

Providence Therapeutics Canada mRNA vaccine

“PTX-COVID19-B”

Synthesized mRNA
LNP (lipid nanoparticle) encapsulated

Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (4 weeks apart)

Phase 1 🟩

No cells used

Cision, 5Aug2020
Providence Therapeutics

Sanofi Pasteur and

Translate Bio

USA

France

mRNA vaccine

non-replicating

“MRT5500”

synthesized by in vitro transcription employing RNA polymerase with a plasmid DNA template

LNP (lipid nanoparticle) encapsulated

Given: Intramuscular

Pre-clinical 🟩

Sequence designed on computer

🟩

No cells used

Kalnin et al., bioRxiv 14Oct2020

mRNA production in the lab ;

Translate Bio scientific platform

🟩🔺

protein test

& pseudovirus

HEK293 cells

Kalnin et al., bioRxiv 14Oct2020

DNA VACCINE
Genexine Korea DNA vaccine

“GX-19”

DNA synthesized in vitro, placed in plasmid vector

Given: Intramuscular and Electroporation

2 doses (4 weeks apart)

Phase 1/2

Phase 1/2

🟩

Sequence designed on computer

🟩

No cells used

Seo et al., bioRxiv 10Oct2020

Inovio Pharmaceuticals USA DNA vaccine

“INO-4800”

DNA synthesized in vitro, placed in plasmid vector

Given: Intradermal Electroporation

2 doses (4 weeks apart)

Phase 2/3

Phase 2

Phase 1/2

Phase 1

Operation Warp Speed

CEPI up to $22.5 Million

🟩

Sequence designed on computer

🟩

No cells used

Smith et al., Nature 20May2020

🟩🔺

protein test

& pseudovirus

HEK293 cells

Smith et al., Nature 20May2020

Osaka University, AnGes, Takara Bio Japan DNA vaccine

“AG0301-COVID19”
“AG0302-COVID19”
Chemically synthesized plasmid vector grown in E. coli
Pressure injector
Given: Intramuscular

2 doses (2 weeks apart)

Phase 2/3

Phase 1/2

Phase 1/2

🟩

Sequence designed on computer

🟩

No cells used
E. coli</em
Nishikawa et al., bioRxiv, 14Jan2021

🟩

Virus neutralization

Vero E6 cells monkey cells
Nishikawa et al., bioRxiv, 14Jan2021

Symvivo Corporation Canada DNA vaccine

“bacTRL-spike”
Genetically engineered Bifidobacterium longum

Given: Oral, bacteria bind to gut lining

1 dose

Phase 1 🟩

No cells used

Zydus Cadila India DNA vaccine

“ZyCov-D”
Chemically synthesized plasmid vector grown in E. coli
Given: Intramuscular

3 doses (4 weeks apart)

Phase 3

Phase 1/2

🟩

Sequence designed on computer

🟩

No eukaryotic cells used
E. coli</em
Dey et al., bioRxiv, 26Jan2021

🟩

Expression analysis
Plaque reduction
Vero cells monkey cells
Dey et al., bioRxiv, 26Jan2021
Yadav et al., bioRxiv, 3Feb2021

 

  1. Data accumulated from primary literature as referenced in the Chart; AND “COVID-19 Treatment and Vaccine Tracker,” Milken Institute, https://covid-19tracker.milkeninstitute.org/ ; AND “Draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines,” World Health Organization (WHO), https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/draft-landscape-of-covid-19-candidate-vaccines
    NOTE that patents are not considered because they are unreliable sources; even the most relevant patents are prospective documents that provide examples of potential use, but do not provide information about actual, current application of an invention or technology.
  2. Prentice, DA and Sander Lee, T. June 15, 2020. A Visual Aid to Viral Infection and Vaccine Production. On Science Series 1. Accessed 19 June 2020 at: https://lozierinstitute.org/a-visual-aid-to-viral-infection-and-vaccine-production/
  3. Phases of Clinical Trials: Pre-clinical- laboratory and animal studies; Phase I- 10-100 people, study safety and dosage; Phase II- tens to hundreds of people, study efficacy, dosage, side effects; Phase III- hundreds to thousands of people, study efficacy and adverse reactions.
  4. HHS-BARDA = U.S. Health and Human Services-Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority; CEPI = Coalition of Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; BARDA’s rapidly-expanding COVID-19 medical countermeasure portfolio. Accessed 29 Sept 2020 at https://www.medicalcountermeasures.gov/app/barda/coronavirus/COVID19.aspx; CEPI’s COVID-19 Vaccine Portfolio, Accessed 29 Sept 2020 at https://cepi.net/COVAX/

 

 

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